Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
What is CPR?
It is the artificial method of circulating blood and oxygen through
a body and attempting to keep the brain alive. CPR does work. When
initiated within four minutes, the survival rate is 43 percent.
When initiated within four to eight minutes, the survival rate is
Why Learn CPR?
One in seven people will have the opportunity to use CPR in their
lifetime. Ninety percent of the time, CPR will be done on a family
member or close friend. More than 650,000 people die annually from
heart attack in the United States each year. More that 350,000 people
die before reaching the hospital. When the brain starts to go four
to six minutes without oxygen, brain damage/death begins.
To learn CPR:
Call the American Red Cross- San Diego at 619-542-7400
up for one of our Fire Explorer Heartsaver CPR Courses.
Risk Factors / Factors that cannot be changed:
Heredity - cannot change your genetic background
Sex - women have lower incidents of heart attack
Race - Blacks have a 45 percent greater chance of high blood
Age - risks increase with age, however, one in four deaths
occur under age 65
Factors that can be changed:
Smoking - one pack a day increases heart attack rate two
times over a nonsmoker and stroke rate five times over a nonsmoker.
Hypertension - (high blood pressure) is a major risk factor
but with no specific symptoms. One in three adults or 58,000 Americans
have high blood pressure controlled by diet, exercise and medications.
Diet - high fat, high cholesterol foods cause plaque to collect
on artery walls constricting blood flow.
Obesity - obese middle-aged men have three times greater
risk of heart attack.
Lack of exercise - regular aerobics exercise at least three
times a week.
Stress - A type-A personality, with a sense of urgency, drive
and competitiveness, has a greater risk.
Signs and Symptoms of Heart Attack
1. Chest pain - can be uncomfortable pressure, tightness or
feeling of indigestion, heavy squeezing pain like a weight on the
chest, can radiate to left arm and neck.
3. Shortness of breath
4. Pale, sweaty cold skin
5. May have no signs or symptoms (silent Myocardial infarction)
Actions for Survival
1. Recognize signals
2. Stop activity, rest, lay down
3. If pain lasts more than two minutes, call for help
4. Patients having early signs often deny having a heart attack
5. Be prepared to do CPR, if alone do CPR for one minute, then call
Four reasons to stop CPR
1. Patient is revived
2. Relieved by another trained individual
3. Become exhausted
4. Doctor is present and pronounces death
The law now protects people who render emergency care.
Good Samaritan Act - Article 4 ARS.#32-1471
Health care providers and other persons administering emergency
aid are not liable. Any health care provider licensed or certified
to practice as such in this state or elsewhere or any other person
who renders emergency care at a public gathering or at a scene of
an emergency occurrence gratuitously and in good faith, shall not
be liable for any civil or other damages as the result of any act
or failure to act to provide or arrange for further medical treatment
or care for the injured persons, unless such person, while rendering
such care, is guilty of gross negligence.
For more information on CPR see: The
American Heart Association